PHILIP II OF MACEDON (about 382 – 336 BC)
A Macedonian king-reformer, who ruled 359-336 BC and turned Macedonia into a centralized kingdom.
Philip II of Macedon reorganized the army – introduced into the infantry corps the so called Macedonian phalanx, and made the first steps for fleet in Macedonia.
He managed to conquer the Pangaion Hills with their gold mines and the colony of Amphipolis from the Thracians. He took advantage of the Odrysian kingdom, weakened after the death of Cotys I and conquered Aegean Thracia, where he initiated a great colonization. Philip II of Macedon started minting gold coins, which led to a conflict with the Persian interests and undermining of the Athenian silver coins. He seized the opportunity, when the Second Athenian Sea League lost its power, and took part in the Holy War on the side of Phocis against Thebes and Athens – 352 BC. In 339 BC, he crushed their united forces at Chaeronea. The established peace made easier for Philip II of Macedon to force the Macedonian hegemony in Hellas. In 337 BC, at the Synedrion at Corinth, a Hellenic league was established under Macedonian hegemony and peace for entire Hellas and a Holy War on Persia was declared. In 336 BC, the military operations began and the Macedonian army, commanded by Parmenion and Attalus, invaded Anatolia to liberate the Greek settlements. In the same year Philip II of Macedon was assassinated by plotters.